Tool analysis commonly used in CNC machining


CNC tooling is one of the prerequisites for improving machining efficiency. Its choice depends on the geometry of the part being machined, the material state, the rigidity of the tool and the tool selected by the machine tool. Different tools are used differently in the CNC machining process. What are the commonly used knives in the CNC machining process?

Turning tool
The turning tool is one of the most widely used tools in metal cutting. It can machine the outer circle, end plane, thread, inner hole on the lathe, and can also be used for grooving and cutting. The turning tool can be divided into a whole turning tool, a welded assembled turning tool and a mechanical clamping blade turning tool. The turning tool of the mechanical clamping blade can be further divided into a machine tool turning tool and an indexable turning tool. The mechanical clamping tool has stable cutting performance and workers do not need to sharpen the knife, so it is used more and more in modern production.
2. Hole machining tool
Hole machining tools can generally be divided into two categories: one is a tool that cuts holes from solid materials, and the other ones are twist drills, center drills, and deep hole drills; the other is to re-exist the existing holes in the workpiece. For machining tools, there are commonly used reaming drills, reamers and boring tools. For example, the structure of a standard high speed steel twist drill is illustrated below. The front end of the working part (knife body) is the cutting part, which undertakes the main cutting work, and the rear end is the guiding part, which functions as a guiding bit and is also a backup part of the cutting part.
3. Milling cutter
Milling cutters are a wide range of multi-blade rotary cutters available in a wide variety of applications. According to the purpose: 1) for machining planes, such as cylindrical face milling cutters, end mills, etc.; 2) for machining grooves, such as end mills, T-knife and angle milling cutters; 3) forming surface Used for convex semicircular and concave semicircular milling cutters and milling cutters for machining other complex forming surfaces. The productivity of milling is generally high, and the surface roughness of the machined surface is large.
4. Broach
The broach is a multi-tooth tool with high machining accuracy and cutting efficiency. It is widely used in mass production and can process various inner and outer surfaces. The broach can be divided into two types of inner broach and outer broach according to the surface of the workpiece to be machined. When using the broach, in addition to selecting the rake angle and the back angle of the cutter according to the workpiece material, it is necessary to determine two parameters according to the size of the workpiece machining surface (such as the diameter of the hole): (1) The angle of elevation af [ie the difference between the radius or height of the two teeth (or the tooth set)]; (2) the pitch p [ie the axial distance between two adjacent teeth].
5. Gear cutter
A gear cutter is a tool for machining a gear tooth profile. According to the working principle of the tool, the gear is divided into a forming gear tool and a forming gear tool. A commonly used forming gear cutter has a disc gear milling cutter and a finger gear cutter. Commonly used spread gear knives include a pinion cutter, a gear hob, and a shaver. When selecting a gear hob and a pinion cutter, the following points should be noted: (1) The basic parameters of the tool (modulus, tooth angle, crown height factor, etc.) should be the same as the gear to be machined. (2) The tool accuracy level should be equivalent to the accuracy level required for the machined gear. (3) The tool rotation should be as close as possible to the direction of the gear being machined. When cutting a spur gear, a left-handed cutter is generally used.
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